Characters appear as question marks using MySQL

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Platform Notice: Server and Data Center Only. This article only applies to Atlassian products on the server and data center platforms.


Certain characters (Cyrillic or Japanese, for example) appear as question marks "????" even though encoding has already been set to UTF-8 in Confluence, MySQL and the app server. Running the encoding test returns successfully with the supplied testing string (Iñtërnâtiônàlizætiøn).


Run the following:

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character\_set\_%';

Which should return a result set like:

| Variable_name            | Value
| character_set_client     | latin1
| character_set_connection | latin1
| character_set_database   | utf8
| character_set_filesystem | binary
| character_set_results    | latin1
| character_set_server     | latin1
| character_set_system     | utf8
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)


The default encoding for inbound connections isn't set properly. DEFAULT CHARSET will return as utf8 however character_set_server will be something different. In the above example, the character_set_server was set as latin1.


Set default-character-set=utf8, as detailed in Configuring Database Character Encoding.

Please also review the character set and collation settings at the databasetable, and column levels as described in this KB: How to Fix the collation and character set of a MySQL Database

Last modified on Nov 2, 2018

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