International Characters in Notification Email Subject Lines Are Being Replaced with Question Mark

Symptoms

Japanese characters displayed as '?' in email, even though the equivalent text is displayed correctly in the web User Interface.

Cause

The ISO-2022-JP encoding cannot encode all the Japanese Kanji characters. For example, the characters "①~⑳髙㌔㌢㍍㍍㊤㊥㊦㊧㊨㈱㈲㈹㍾㍽㍼㍻" cannot be encoded correctly.

When trying to send the e-mail JIRA converts characters than cannot be encoded into ISO-2022-JP as '?'

Resolution

Change the mail encoding to UTF-8 or another encoding that can represent all characters. To do this, set the system property JAVA_OPTS=-Dfile.encoding=utf-8. See Setting Properties and Options on Startup for instructions.

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